Coffee, tea, and sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink intake and pancreatic cancer risk: a pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies

Reference Details

Genkinger JM, Li R, Spiegelman D, Anderson KE, Albanes D, Bergkvist L, Bernstein L, Black A, van den Brandt PA, English DR, Freudenheim JL, Fuchs CS, Giles GG, Giovannucci E, Goldbohm RA, Horn-Ross PL, Jacobs EJ, Koushik A, Mannisto S, Marshall JR, Miller AB, Patel AV, Robien K, Rohan TE, Schairer C, Stolzenberg-Solomon R, Wolk A, Ziegler RG, Smith-Warner SA (2012) Coffee, tea, and sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink intake and pancreatic cancer risk: a pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 21:305-318


BACKGROUND: Coffee has been hypothesized to have pro- and anticarcinogenic properties, whereas tea may contain anticarcinogenic compounds. Studies assessing coffee intake and pancreatic cancer risk have yielded mixed results, whereas findings for tea intake have mostly been null. Sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink (SSB) intake has been associated with higher circulating levels of insulin, which may promote carcinogenesis. Few prospective studies have examined SSB intake and pancreatic cancer risk; results have been heterogeneous. METHODS: In this pooled analysis from 14 prospective cohort studies, 2,185 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified among 853,894 individuals during follow-up. Multivariate (MV) study-specific relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random-effects model. RESULTS: No statistically significant associations were observed between pancreatic cancer risk and intake of coffee (MVRR = 1.10; 95% CI, 0.81-1.48 comparing >/=900 to <0 g/d; 237g approximately 8oz), tea (MVRR = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.78-1.16 comparing >/=400 to 0 g/d; 237g approximately 8oz), or SSB (MVRR = 1.19; 95% CI, 0.98-1.46 comparing >/=250 to 0 g/d; 355g approximately 12oz; P value, test for between-studies heterogeneity > 0.05). These associations were consistent across levels of sex, smoking status, and body mass index. When modeled as a continuous variable, a positive association was evident for SSB (MVRR = 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.12). Conclusion and Impact: Overall, no associations were observed for intakes of coffee or tea during adulthood and pancreatic cancer risk. Although we were only able to examine modest intake of SSB, there was a suggestive, modest positive association for risk of pancreatic cancer for intakes of SSB.

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