Mitchell HE, D. R.; Elliott, F.; Gengos, M.; Barrett, J. H.; Giles, G. G.; Forman, D. (2008) Immunoblotting using multiple antigens is essential to demonstrate the true risk of Helicobacter pylori infection for gastric cancer. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 28:903-910
BACKGROUND: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection, using IgG antibodies, may significantly underestimate the association with gastric cancer. AIM: To compare associations between H. pylori and cardia (CGC) and noncardia gastric cancer (NCGC) using ELISA and immunoblotting and determine the effect of atrophic gastritis on detection. METHODS: Nested case-control study within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Helicobacter pylori antibodies were detected in subjects with CGC (n = 18), NCGC (n = 34) and controls (n = 69 and 134 respectively) using ELISA (pylori DTect) and immunoblot (Helicoblot 2.1). Pepsinogen I levels were measured using ELISA. RESULTS: Using ELISA, H. pylori-positivity in the CGC group was 33% vs. 35% in controls [odds ratio (OR = 0.9, 95% CI: 0.3-2.7)], while that in the NCGC group was 79% vs. 63% in controls [OR = 2.3 (95% CI: 0.9-5.8)]. Based on immunoblotting, H. pylori-positivity in the CGC group was 44% vs. 39% in their controls [OR = 1.2 (95% CI: 0.4-3.4)], while that in the NCGC group was 94% vs. 63% in controls [OR = 10.6 (95% CI: 2.4-47.4)]. Pepsinogen I levels in the NCGC cases and controls showed the lowest median level (4 ng/mL) to be in subjects negative by ELISA but positive by immunoblotting. CONCLUSION: Immunoblotting improves the accuracy of H. pylori studies involving gastric cancer.