Lee JE, Hunter DJ, Spiegelman D, Adami HO, Bernstein L, van den Brandt PA, Buring JE, Cho E, English D, Folsom AR, Freudenheim JL, Gile GG, Giovannucci E, Horn-Ross PL, Leitzmann M, Marshall JR, Mannisto S, McCullough ML, Miller AB, Parker AS, Pietinen P, Rodriguez C, Rohan TE, Schatzkin A, Schouten LJ, Willett WC, Wolk A, Zhang SM, Smith-Warner SA (2007) Intakes of coffee, tea, milk, soda and juice and renal cell cancer in a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies. Int J Cancer 121:2246-2253
Specific beverage intake may be associated with the risk of renal cell cancer through a diluting effect of carcinogens, alterations of hormone levels, or other changes in the renal tubular environment, but few prospective studies have examined these associations. We evaluated the associations between coffee, tea, milk, soda and fruit and vegetable juice intakes and renal cell cancer risk in a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies (530,469 women and 244,483 men). Participants completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline. Using the primary data, the study-specific relative risks (RRs) were calculated and then pooled using a random effects model. A total of 1,478 incident renal cell cancer cases were identified during a follow-up of 7-20 years across studies. Coffee consumption was associated with a modestly lower risk of renal cell cancer (pooled multivariate RR for 3 or more 8 oz (237 ml) cups/day versus less than one 8 oz (237 ml) cup/day = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.67-1.05; p value, test for trend = 0.22). Tea consumption was also inversely associated with renal cell cancer risk (pooled multivariate RR for 1 or more 8 oz (237 ml) cups/day versus nondrinkers = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.71-1.02; pvalue, test for trend = 0.04). No clear associations were observed for milk, soda or juice. Our findings provide strong evidence that neither coffee nor tea consumption increases renal cell cancer risk. Instead, greater consumption of coffee and tea may be associated with a lower risk of renal cell cancer. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.