Bassett JK, Severi G, Hodge AM, Macinnis RJ, Gibson RA, Hopper JL, English DR, Giles GG (2013) Plasma phospholipid fatty acids, dietary fatty acids and prostate cancer risk. Int J Cancer 133:1882-1891
Animal and experimental studies have demonstrated that long chain n-3 fatty acids inhibit the development of prostate cancer, whereas n-6 fatty acids might promote it. We performed a case-cohort analysis within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study using a random sample of 1,717 men and 464 prostate cancer cases to investigate associations between fatty acids assessed in plasma phospholipids (PPL) or diet (estimated using a 121-item food frequency questionnaire) and prostate cancer risk. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox regression. Prostate cancer risk was positively associated with %PPL saturated fatty acids (SFA); HR [95% CI]=1.51 [1.06, 2.16], (Q5 vs. Q1, fifth vs. first quintile); P-trend=0.003. HRs (Q5-Q2 vs. Q1) were significantly elevated for %PPL palmitic acid. %PPL oleic acid was inversely associated with risk, HR=0.62 [0.43, 0.91] (Q5 vs. Q1); P-trend=0.04. No statistically significant linear trends were observed for dietary intakes. The HRs were elevated for moderate intakes of linoleic acid (Q2 and Q3 vs. Q1, 1.58 [1.10, 2.28] and 1.70 [1.18, 2.46], respectively), but the increase was not significant for higher intakes (Q4 and Q5). No association varied significantly by tumour aggressiveness (all P-homogeneity>0.1). Prostate cancer risk was positively associated with %PPL SFA, largely attributable to palmitic acid and inversely associated with %PPL monounsaturated fatty acids, largely attributable to oleic acid. Higher risks were also observed for dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fats, primarily linoleic acid. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.